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		Frequently Asked Questions

  Here are some of the things which are most frequently asked for
IMACS (and LDSS) mask generation software support.

Q:  I don't get any objects for my mask, they all seem to be removed
  for conflicts.  Where are they going?

A:  If you have checked for the obvious things such as an error in entering
  the field center (look at the sky window, and enable plotting of the
  objects to see that they are in the field) then the next probable thing
  is that you have too large a wavelength range, or too high dispersion.
  Use a greatly reduced wavelength range, and turn off the extra orders
  option, and you should see some objects selected.  If that fails, check
  your slit dimensions, or use the default slit sizes to start.  Once you
  have the objects appearing, change your wavelength range and slit sizes
  to get your desired mask.  If extra orders is used, slit images will
  conflict with themselves if the ratio of low to high wavelength ends
  exceeds the ratio of adjacent spectral orders, which removes all objects.

Q:  On the debug plot for "maskgen" some spectra fall off the detector
  boundary shown on the plot.  Why is this allowed?

A:  The plot shows the expected spectra in the detector space for
  all the features on the mask.  While spectra of program objects which
  exceed the detector bounds cause those objects to be removed, there
  is no such requirement for alignment stars.  So long as the alignment
  hole image falls on the detector in direct mode, it is allowed.  
  Its spectrum is computed to find conflicts with program object spectra, 
  but the spectrum of an alignment star is allowed to fall off the detector, 
  and you will see those.  Also, if you use the detector range feature to 
  specify a more restrictive wavelength range for the detector bound test, 
  spectra may be seen which meet that test, but their total conflictable 
  size falls off the detector.

Q:  I have some high priority targets which I definitely want, and some
  filler targets which I would like to add as many as possible, but not
  bump any of the high priority targets.  How do I set my priorities?

A:  Set the priorities from highest (numerically least) to lowest as:
      All your high priority targets
      All your filler targets
  This will ensure that all the high priority targets are on the mask, and
  conflicts between them are decided by priority.  The filler targets will
  then be selected to maximize the number of them, and yet not interfere
  with the selection of the high priority targets.

Q:  I found some spectra which overlap.  Why is this happening?

A:  You probably had some objects for which the priority was over 
  (numerically less than) the "MustHave" priority value.  Such objects
  are never removed for conflicts, only for spectra not being on the
  detector or the slit falling off the allowed cutting area of the 
  mask, or for being duplicates.  A small and easily ignored message
  is produced by maskgen for each such conflict.  Use the "MustHave"
  feature only when you actually want the object to appear on the mask
  without being checked for conflicts.

Q:  Why am I required to select guide stars?  Can I get around this if
  I am designing masks on a system without the catalog files?

A:  The IMACS instrument requires that guide stars be specified for
  both guiders.  It is quite difficult to observe without them, and
  longer observations really need the guiders to keep your objects
  in the slits and the telescope figure corrected.  Some observers have
  found that it is possible to design a mask for a location and position
  angle at which no suitably bright guide star is available.  This is
  something you don't want to have happen when you get to the telescope.
  To prevent this, the maskgen task will not process a mask design for
  which two guide stars have not been specified.  Two stars are needed
  to guide the telescope in field rotation, and to allow the telescope
  control system to update the mirror figure for optimal images.
  If there is a demand by observers wishing to try mask designs on
  laptop systems without catalog data, it would be possible to allow
  the quick look option activated by the "MaskGen" button in the intgui
  task to bypass the catalog star exit, since the quick look option
  will not generate a final slit mask definition file.  The selection
  of guide stars will still be required for a final design however.

Q:  How can I tell if the guide stars I select in the sky window are
  actually stars rather than galaxies or other non-stellar objects?

A:  There is a feature in the sky window to obtain an on-line sky survey
  view of any "star" in the catalog view.  This is explained in the
  instruction file (mginstr.txt) under the "Guide Star selection"
  heading.  Holding the control key and right clicking on a star will
  send a rquest for a 1.5 arc minute square picture centered on the
  star position.  For Mac-OS-X this uses the "open" command, and for
  linux the "firefox" browser is used by default.  You can set the
  MYDISPLAY environment variable to select an alternate command, and
  this command should accept a full URL as its argument and display the
  resulting GIF image or possible HTML error message.  Use your favorite
  web browser, or if you prefer the ImageMagick "display" command if you
  have it configured on your system.  The result picture is oriented
  with North up, and your sky window may be oriented differently.  It
  is always a good idea to use this feature, since non-stellar objects
  occur in the catalog more frequently than one would guess.  This is
  especially important in regions where there are few guide stars.

Q:  How can I change the parameters of individual slits such as width,
  slit length or orientation angle?

A:  See the file "catdata.txt" which documents the object catalog data
  file.  After the object name and position, other data may be specified
  by a "keyword=value" form.  Keywords exist for priority, slit sizes and
  orientations, and slit shape.

Q:  Sometimes the spectra on the detector in the plot at the end of
  maskgen are reversed from the orientation of the slits in the mask view
  of the same solution, and sometimes red is at the top, other times at
  the bottom.  Also, the mask view seems to be reversed from the plot
  of the mask cutting file from "ncplot".  What's going on with that?

A:  The mask view in the maskgen debug window is oriented the same as the
  view of the sky in the interface GUI sky window.  With the default slit
  orientation it would be North up and East to the left.  It is rotated
  by the slit orientation if your slits are not at the 90 degree default.
  That is the orientation of the mask as viewed from the telescope side
  of the instrument when the mask is inserted, and you are looking at the
  convex side of the mask, and the dispersion direction is up/down.
  The plot in "ncplot" is of the mask as it is being cut in the laser
  cutting machine, with the concave side up, so it is reversed right-left
  from the sky view orientation.  This is done because the maskgen views
  and Interface GUI views are intended for the observer and should match
  the orientation on the sky.  The "ncplot" view is intended for the mask
  cutting technician, and match the machine orientation as it is cut.
  The view of the detector is in the coordinate system used to check the
  spectra for conflict, and is intended for program debugging.  That
  coordinate system is instrument dependent -- the IMACS f/4 camera uses
  a reflection grating, so its coordinates are reflected when compared
  to the f/2 camera view that uses a grism.  You will also notice that
  the view of the data from the f/4 camera and f/2 cameras are reflected.
  Also, the dispersion direction depends on the disperser, and the gratings
  and grisms may disperse light in different directions; the red and blue
  colors of the spectrum ends indicate the direction of the disperser used.

Q:  I checked the "Extend Slits" box, but the slits are not extended
  when I click the "MaskGen" button.  Why?
A:  Slit extension takes some time, and the mask generation test is
  intended to be quick.  So, such test executions suppress the slit
  extension feature.  It will be done in the separate "maskgen"
  execution done later, if your set-up does not include nod-and-shuffle
  or the Echelle disperser.

Q:  When I click on the "MaskGen" button in intgui, a solution is done,
  but no .SMF file is made.  Why is this?

A:  The "MaskGen" button is for a quick trial run of mask generation, to
  check for errors or omissions in the intgui data, and to verify that the
  design is basically working.  It is intended to allow for interactive
  changes to wavelength range, position angle adjustments, corrections of
  errors in the position or catalog file names, disperser selection, and
  all the other intgui input.  This quick look option passed to maskgen
  will suppress some debug messages, slit extension algorithm execution,
  generation of the list of objects with use counts, and especially the
  final .SMF output file.  To complete the mask generation process, you
  will have to run "maskgen" separately.

Q:  Why is the file name limited to 8 characters?

A:  There is a limit of 9 characters on old MS-DOS file names, due to
  the format of the disk directory on the early DOS system.  Although
  that limitation has been removed, the workaround still does not allow
  the larger file names to appear correctly in some directory lists.
  Since the ultimate cutting files are processed on a Windows-98 system
  which runs the machine tool to cut masks, we want the unique file name
  to be visible at all stages.  We preface the name with a single character
  indicating the instrument system (using "I" for IMACS, "L" for the LDSS
  spectrograph and "G" for the GISMO field splitter) and this leaves 8 
  characters for a DOS-compatible file name to be used in cutting the mask.  
  This also limits the choice of characters in the file name to those 
  acceptable in a DOS file name, and means that file names are not case 
  sensitive on the mask cutting machine.  It is best to use only letters 
  and numbers in the name.

Q:  Two objects in my list are declared duplicates and one is removed.
  What is the criterion for deciding whether objects are duplicated?

A:  Any two objects whose sky positions are closer than the width of
  the default slit are considered duplicates.  If both were allowed,
  their slits would intersect on the mask, so one of them is removed
  even before conflict resolution is done.  Removal is done on the
  basis of priority.  For most observing programs, objects so removed
  are actually duplicate instances of the same object.

Q:  My object position list was made with a Fortran program, and has
  spaces where minutes or seconds are less than 10.  How can I use it?

A:  The input routines use the space character as a delimiter and would
  become terminally confused thinking those spaces indicated the end of
  one coordinate and the beginning of the other.  Such input is not
  allowed.  If using a Fortran program, just output a decimal number of
  hours and degrees for the coordinates, and there will be no problem.
  If you have such a list from elsewhere and are not generating it, use
  a simple program to insert zero characters where those spaces are and
  produce a new list.  Also, you can't use spaces between hours or degrees
  and minutes and seconds; put in a colon to indicate minutes and seconds.

Q:  I put in a slit orientation of 90 degrees, and the .obs file shows
  a position angle of zero.  Which is right?

A:  Since there are two different ways of specifying these angles, we use
  both.  A position angle on the sky is the orientation of a line from
  the object being observed, relative to the local meridian through that
  object.  If the line points to the North Celestial Pole along the local
  meridian, that is a position angle of zero, and as that line moves
  Eastward on the sky the position angle increases to 90 degrees at East,
  180 at South and 270 at West.  In the Interface GUI, the slit angle
  refers to the position angle of the slit itself, and the default
  orientation is for slits to lie east-west, with the slit position angle
  then being 90 degrees.  In the .obs file, we use the sky orientation of
  the spectrograph itself, and the canonical orientation is the direction
  of dispersion, which is usually at right angles to the slit.  Thus, with
  a spectrograph orientation of zero degrees, the slit at right angles to
  the dispersion will have an orientation of 90 degrees.  This conversion
  is done in the Interface GUI as an accommodation to the observers who
  have requested slit orientation rather than dispersion orientation be
  used.  The 90 degree orientation refers to a particular orientation
  of the spectrograph, and a 270 degree orientation will put a very
  similar looking slit on the sky, but the spectrograph is then oriented
  180 degrees away from the 90 degree case.  This is often done to allow
  observation of those fields where the field rotation mechanism would
  otherwise reach its limit and require the observation to be interrupted
  so that it may be reversed by 360 degrees to continue.

Q:  I didn't use any priorities in my object list (or many of my objects
  have the same priority value) -- which way do conflicts get resolved?

A:  When priorities are equal, the algorithms rely on the order in which
  the objects were read from your list, and the order in which multiple
  lists were given.  An object read earlier has priority over one which
  was read later in the list.  When priorities are omitted, they are
  read as zero values.  When the intermediate object list is written to
  the .obw file, those objects are written in the same order as they were
  originally read.

Q:  How many reference objects do I need?

A:  For normal multi-slit operation, you need at least two objects to be
  able to align the mask in position and rotation.  Since it is common
  for one or more reference object to be not acceptable in actual use,
  a working minimum or 3 or 4 is much better.  They can be anywhere in
  the field, but having them spaced well apart for rotational alignment
  is a good idea.  Their spectra need not be on the detector, and can
  conflict with each other, so some observers purposely choose reference
  objects to line up in the dispersion direction, letting their spectra
  conflict with each other and allow more space for object spectra.

Q:  How do I make some of my slits have special shapes; different slit
  width or length, and how can I have a slit tilted slightly?

A:  The format of the object list allows individual specification of
  slit parameters.  Items following the position fields
  are individual slit parameters.  Please see the file "catdata.txt"
  provided in the distribution, which shows how to add parameters.
  It may also be found on the web at the address: 
  (a link to that is also in the 
  page which is the main web page for the mask making software).
  Also, do not put extra data after the position in object lists, as
  that can be taken as slit parameter data, and cause your slits to be
  very strange indeed.  If you want comments on individual object lines
  in the file, use a "!" or a "#" character to start the comments.
  Those comments will be carried on to the .SMF, .obw and .obx files.
  The "maskgen" program will check for particularly strange things in
  object parameters, and warn if there are many of them.

Q:  It appears that reference objects always produce square holes; can
  I get circular reference holes in my mask?

A:  Currently, reference holes are indeed restricted to the square shape,
  this is to maintain compatibility with the alignment procedures used
  at the telescope for observing.  If you want circular holes cut in your
  mask, those must be done as normal objects which can have any shape.

Q:  I notice that many of the windows need a "center" mouse button, but
  my mouse/laptop doesn't have one.  How can I get the center function?

A:  Yes, that was a limitation.  Starting with release 2.11, clicking
  the left (or right) mouse button while holding the "Shift" key down
  will produce the effect of a "center" mouse button.  Please note that
  the "caps lock" key is something else, and you really need to use the
  "Shift" key for this feature.

Q:  I have a special program for which I would like a mask in which my
  object slits are all tilted by a small amount; how can I do this?

A:  You need to edit the .obs file; there will be a line like this:
  SLITSIZE  1.000  6.000  6.000  0.000
  That specifies the default slit width 1.0, lengths 6.0 and 6.0 and tilt
  of 0.0.  Edit that last field to change the tilt of the default slit.
  The amount is the rotation in degrees, counter-clockwise on the sky,
  relative to the default orientation perpendicular to the dispersion.
  PLEASE NOTE that this default tilt will be read by intgui and written
  into subsequent .obs files when you save it, so it is passed on.
  If you read such an edited .obs file and modify it, the changed tilt
  will still be there, which may not be what is desired; please be careful
  as there is no warranty on mask design operation.

Q:  What are those holes at the edges of my IMACS mask?  Can they
  be omitted?

A:  Those are the "wing chip" support holes.  In order to actively
  compensate for instrumental flexure, two small CCD chips are set to
  the sides of the data array.  Night sky light through these holes
  is imaged on those chips, and the resulting pattern is used for 
  active feed-back to move the array slightly to stabilize the image.
  This only works in "normal" orientation due to the location of these
  "wing chips", so the holes are not needed and not cut in known
  nod-and-shuffle operations.  If the array is taking normal data while
  in the nod-and-shuffle orientation, light from these holes is unused.
  If you know that your observations will be with the detector array
  in the "Nod-and=Shuffle" orientation without wing chip support, the
  "-w" flag to "maskgen" will omit these holes.
  -- UPDATE -- In version 2.10 and later releases of the software, the
  wing chip holes are optional, and are no longer present as a default.
  It turns out that the active compensation was never implemented, and
  probably will not be.  Now the "-w" flag is used to add them, just
  the opposite effect as before.

Q:  How can I create an observing catalog entry for observations with
  my masks?

A:  The observing catalog is a file produced by the observer for all the
  objects being observed in the run, with one entry per line.  See the page for details.  In the
  .SMF file for the mask, there is a line starting with "!.OC " which
  contains the fields 2-9 for your observing catalog entries.  Simply take
  these lines, and add a unique name/number for the first field in place
  of the "!.OC" identifier, and you will have an acceptable observing
  catalog for your masks.  A script, "obscat" will produce an observing
  catalog file from your .SMF files automatically.  See the mginstr.txt
  file for details of its use.  The lines created will contain the guide
  star information from the intgui execution.

Q:  Looking at the plot for my GISMO mask, I am confused in trying to locate
  the objects from the direct field in the re-imaged fields.  Help?

A:  Yes, it is initially confusing.  First, note that each sub-field is
  inverted when re-imaged (rotated by 180 degrees).  Each quadrant of the
  field is imaged in the same way, with appropriate reflections into its
  own re-imaged quadrant.  The image of the sub-field nearest the center
  is near the center, and the sub-field farthest from the center is imaged
  farthest from the center; however surprisingly the intermediate two are
  interchanged from where you might expect them.  Knowing this, you should 
  be able to see patterns of objects between the input and output fields.

Q:  My objects on the sky and the slit mask occupy a roughly square area,
  yet the spectra plotted on the detector show a more rectangular shape.
  What is happening?

A:  When using the reflection gratings in the F/4 camera, the angle of
  reflection for the spectrum is not equal to the angle of incidence
  as it would be for a plane mirror.  This is due to the reflection being
  angularly displaced by the grating dispersion.  One of the features of
  this spectrograph is to cause an angular compression of the object
  positions in the dispersion direction, enabling more spectra of objects
  in the field to fit onto the detector.  This can be seen by comparing
  the sky positions as shown by the slits in the mask view to the detector
  spectral positions in the detector view.  

Q:  Increasing the "uncut length" of my slits causes no change in the
  objects being selected.  Why is no extra space being assigned?

A:  The uncut length of a slit segment (and this is separately done for
  left and right of the object position) is an amount deducted from the
  specified slit length, not an amount to be added.  Thus, it cannot
  exceed the specified slit length; if it does, it is ignored.  You
  should set the slit lengths to create a spectrum image patch on the
  detector which will be protected from conflict with other objects.
  Then, specify a portion of the end of that slit segment which is not
  cut in the mask -- this is usually the amount of your nod-and-shuffle
  displacement.  That amount will be less than the slit size initially

Q:  Why do the .nc files produced use inch measurement?  All the rest of
  the data is in millimeters, and the machine can use millimeter input,
  so why do the conversion?

A:  It is a safety thing.  The input to the machine can be in millimeters
  or in inches.  The numbers are smaller by a factor of 25.4 in the inch
  case.  Now imagine that the machine gets confused (being run by a computer
  operating Windows-98 that's not unusual!) and switches from the intended
  mode to the other mode.  If it interprets inch input as millimeters,
  it does very small motions very slowly by a factor of 25.4 and does not
  cause any problems.  If however it interprets millimeter input as inches,
  it moves 25.4 times as far, and does it 25.4 times as fast, and crashes
  with great force damaging the mask and the laser head.  This would be bad.
  That's why inch mode is the default.  It is possible to create .nc files
  in millimeter mode, but is highly not recommended, so we make it difficult.

Q:  Looking at my mask, there is a number engraved on it after the mask
  name (or after the date label).  What is that number?

A:  It is an optional serial number, used for tracking the mask and for
  storing and locating it.  The automated mask submission and data base
  system uses this number to track the mask status and location.  It is
  assigned when the mask is cut by the automated system and is not a
  user input value.

Q:  What happened to the temperature field in the interface GUI?

A:  Not much used, it was removed.  Since masks need to be submitted at
  least 30 days in advance, it was asking users to predict the weather
  a month in advance, which is hard to impossible to do accurately.
  Statistical analysis shows that the mean observing temperature is
  about 12 C, with a standard deviation of about 3 C.  So, we now use
  the 12 degree value as the default.  Whether this is actually used to
  cut the masks is under the final control of the mask generation process
  at LCO.  If you really know that you will observe at a significantly
  different temperature, and want the feature, change the line in the
  .obs file starting with "TEMPERATURE" to the Celsius temperature of
  your choice, and ask that temperature compensation be used in making
  the mask.  This may have limited application when cutting a mask very
  near the time of observing, and when it is unusually cold.